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Introduction. Sofia Ionescu-Ogrezeanu (b. April 25, 1920, F?lticeni - d. March 21, 2008, Bucharest), also known as the Lady of Romanian Neurosurgery, became the first woman neurosurgeon in the world after performing a brain surgery during World War II, a fact recognized as a world premiere during the 13th World Congress of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) in Morocco, in 2005. 
Materials and methods. Sofia Ionescu is the first woman neurosurgeon. She was born on the fields of Bucovina, in F?lticeni, and became part of the "golden team" of the Romanian neurosurgery of the pioneering period. The decisive moment of her career took place in 1944, during the war when she was forced to perform an emergency operation on a child, a victim of the bombing.
The article coagulates the reports regarding the description of the first brain surgery performed by the first woman neurosurgeon with the continuous activity integrated with the field of neurosurgery. Both specialized articles, biographical books, and television interviews were used as references.
Results. The operation performed in the fifth year of faculty was the first step of a journey of 47 years of neurosurgical career, practised with high morality and devotion. The sacrifice of the pioneer of the first woman neurosurgeon was recognized in the press in the country and abroad, as well as by the recognition of different titles and distinctions.