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A much-debated subject in the last 20 years, the recovery after peripheral nerve injury still remains one of the most researched themes of our days. Although the central nervous system has not exhibited any ground-breaking discoveries in matters of healing through surgical procedures, this is not the case for the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS recovery after injury has improved over the years so we now speak of time and percentage of rehabilitation. The increased interest for this subject is a result in the development of the medical technique, that allowed the creation of new molecules capable to improve the regeneration rate. Furthermore, the evolution in diagnostic parameters, as well as the possibility of a thorough follow-up, contributed to the ascending research of this field. One must not forget that all experimental studies have as endpoint obtaining safe and reproducible solutions which can be applied in treating patients with peripheral nerve injury. We will briefly present the microscopic events that occur following a peripheral nerve injury, the key factors which influence their regeneration as well as the classical techniques used to repair them. However, the most intriguing topic in nerve regeneration is not related to the surgical procedure (considered to be the Gold Standard in whole nerve injury), but rather the helping substances that facilitate a faster and better recovery.