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Background. Follicular carcinoma thyroid usually metastasises to bone. Common sites of bone metastasis include skull and spine. Spinal metastasis are more common in the cervical region followed by dorsolumbar spine. Cervical extradural lesions present with progressive quadriparesis, sensory loss, dysautonomia, and respiratory distress. Typical Elsberg phenomenon in a cervical extradural lesion is rare. Elsberg phenomenon involves the involvement of ipsilateral upper limb, ipsilateral lower limb followed by contralateral lower limb and contralateral upper limb.
Case presentation. We are reporting a case of 47-year-old lady presented with progressive quadriparesis of 1-month duration. Her weakness started in left upper limb followed by left lower limb, right lower limb and right upper limb weakness. She also had sensory loss below the level of C7. She had undergone near-total thyroidectomy for solitary thyroid nodule 14 years back and was on thyroid supplementation since then. Histopathology at that time was reported as follicular adenoma with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Her right upper limb power was grade 4- Left upper limb grade 1 right lower limb Grade 3, left lower limb grade 2 with hypertonia of both upper and lower limbs. She was evaluated with MRI Spine which showed a dumb bell-shaped extramedullary lesion involving the C5-C6 vertebra with significant cord compression and encasement of the left vertebral artery. USG neck showed left supraclavicular lymph node enlargement and small residual thyroid tissue in the left side of the thyroid. USG guided FNAC from the thyroid tissue and neck nodes were inconclusive. The patient underwent C4 and C5 laminectomy and subtotal excision from the cervical lesion. Histopathology was reported as metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid. Postoperatively patient limb power improved to grade 3 left upper and lower limbs and was discharged and later referred for radioiodine ablation
Conclusion. Cervical extradural metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid can present with Elsberg syndrome even without any neck swelling even after decades of post thyroidectomy status for a benign aetiology. Laminectomy and decompression may lead to clinical improvement.