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Aim: Pedicle screw fixation is an established technique in the lumbar and thoracic area. Fluoroscopy-guided screw placement and subsequently navigation have decreased the rate of misplaced screws, but no technique has wholly eliminated this risk. This paper aims to study the difference between the accuracy of the fluoroscopic guided screw placement to that of the 2D fluoroscopy- preop CT fused neuronavigation guided technique, a lesser-used navigation technique.
Material and Methods: This retrospective study reflects our results using both techniques between March 2018 and March 2019 in both degenerative or traumatic spinal pathology for thoracic and lumbar regions. The accuracy of the screw placement was measured using Mirza grading system on postoperative CT images.
Results: A total number of 56 patients underwent spinal instrumentation surgery. A total of 274 screws were placed with a mean number of 4.89 screws per patient; 199 screws were implanted using neuronavigation and 75 using the freehand-2D fluoroscopy-guided technique. The accuracy rate of pedicle screw placement in the freehand technique guided by 2D fluoroscopy was 88,00%. With the use of neuronavigation, the accuracy increased to 89,96%.
Conclusion: Pedicle screw placement accuracy is higher when guided by CT-fluoro matching neuronavigation compared to freehand fluoroscopy-guided technique and can be used in departments where there is no intraoperative O-arm or 3D fluoroscopy available.