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Introduction: Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common injuries that can result in significant disability, deformity and neurological deficit. There are standard classification systems that have been described based on fracture morphology, injury mechanism, neurological deficit and injury to posterior ligamentous complex. The thoracolumbar junction (T10-L2) is uniquely positioned in between the rigid thoracic spine and the mobile lumbar spine. This transition from the less mobile thoracic spine with its associated ribs and sternum to the more dynamic lumbar spine subjects the thoracolumbar region to significant biomechanical stress. Hence, fractures of the thoracolumbar region are the most common injuries of the vertebral column. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 651 cases with thoracolumbar spine fractures admitted in Emergency Clinical Hospital “Prof. Dr. N. Oblu”, Neurosurgery, Iasi, Romania between Ian 2014- Dec 2017. Conclusions: Trauma to the thoraco-lumbar spine and spinal cord is potentially devastating injury an it can be accompanied by significant neurologic damage , including paraplegia . Patients with incomplete neurologic deficits may regain a large amount of useful function with early or rapid surgical treatment.Imaging studies are essential to confirm the exact location of lesion, to assess the stability of the spine.