Brolly <p>Call for Papers - Vol. 4, No. 1 (April 2021)<br />Submission Deadline: March 25, 2021</p> London Academic Publishing en-US Brolly 2516-869X A (Nudge) Psychology Reading of the "Nigerian Scam" <p>The “Nigerian Scam” (so named because of its prevalence in the country, especially during the 1990s, then continued by many organizations in other different regions around the world) is a scheme in which the sender requests help in facilitating a transfer of money. In return, he offers a large commission, sometimes up to several million dollars. The scammers request that money be sent to pay for some of the costs associated with the transfer. These attempts (also known as “advance fee fraud “or “419 fraud” - there is a section in the Nigerian Criminal Code, <em>i.e.</em> Section 419, that point at this type of fraud as illegal), are widely regarded as a joke among digital natives. However, forms and variations of the Nigerian Scam have been successful since the 16th century and continue to do so, even in the 21st century. The longevity of the scam hints at the exploitation of very basic human processes. Therefore, this article tries to analyse these processes from a psychological standpoint, trying to derive the mechanisms that these texts exploit. The different phases of the scam (from the creation of the target group, until the final contact) are analysed from the psychology of persuasion as well as behavioural economics standpoints – both being subsumed under the label of “Nudging” – trying to identify the settings, scenarios, framings, and signals which make the scam one of the most successful scams in human history</p> Till Neuhaus Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 7 28 Temple's Rape in William Faulkner’s "Sanctuary" <p>In this paper, I intend to show that Temple Drake, a well-bred girl who is abducted and raped, does not participate in her own debasement - as many critics argue, since her metamorphosis from innocence to promiscuity is the outcome of patriarchal manipulation. Temple’s physical and psychological abuse and her transformation from “a blank-faced baby” to a “doll-faced slut” reverberate in feminist arguments about masculine “subjectivism” constructed upon female “objectification.” Either with her father and brothers or with Popeye, Temple Drake is depicted as a puppet controlled in a way that reflects her objectification by a masculine-biased culture. Nevertheless, the doll-faced Temple still shows signs of power in her weakest moments, turning into a stereotypical picture of the new woman who wordlessly claims agency and emasculates the patriarch despite repression and sexual exploitation.</p> Mourad Romdhani Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 29 50 The “Everyday Forms of Resistance” in Ben Okri’s “The Famished Road” Trilogy <p>This paper aims to study resistance in Ben Okri’s The Famished Road Trilogy. It analyses diverse forms of resistance, especially those inscribed by the ordinary people to challenge the authority of the dominant structures and to transform the given order in historically specific ways. The dialectic of oppression and resistance shapes the world of Okri’s trilogy. What is of particular interest to the purposes of this paper is not the organized resistance movements but what James C. Scott has called the “everyday forms of resistance.” (Weapons of the Weak 1985, 36) Scott theorises resistance as a spontaneous act that is neither organized nor politically charged. The dialectic of oppression and resistance shapes the world of Okri’s trilogy. The paper perceives resistance as a “spontaneous overflow”, to borrow Wordsworth’s phrase, that is governed by self-interest. The “spontaneous overflow” in this context means that resistance is the expression of deep feelings of dissatisfaction and discontent with injustice, inequity, and the various forms of oppression found in a society. Resistance provides the platform to the oppressed people to express their refusal and their standing against colonialist, post-colonialist and neo-colonialist exploitation. It is a resistance to all oppressors whether they are Western colonizers or local rulers. Resistance against injustice is not calculated or planned but it may transform into an organized politically charged act that has the potential to dislodge the oppressive structures, if not eradicate them. What are the various forms of oppression Okri’s protagonists have faced? How do they respond to these forms of oppression? Does their resistance achieve its intended outcome(s)? If resistance falls short of achieving its intended outcomes, what conditions does Okri advocate for its success?</p> Abdelkader Ben Rhit Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 51 72 Sites of Cinematographic Memory This article deals with how the history of the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s is reconstructed and presented to the global viewers of the film Black’47 (2018). It shows that the film’s narrative reflected a Nationalist perception of the Irish past which condemns the role of the British politicians of the time. It also concludes that the film provides an opportunity for the Irish in Ireland and abroad with a site of cinematographic memory that transcends the national borders of Ireland and engages the public in the process of remembering and reconstructing the history of this calamity Mohamed Salah Harzallah Copyright (c) 2021 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 73 95 In the Beginning was Violence <p>In this article, I will address the following theoretical and historical problems. I would assume that Lenin, during the pre-revolutionary period, thought that \ violence was necessary for seizing the state power but later on, after taking it, his utopian ideals about the temporal exercise of violence has been disappeared. Lenin’s idea about the necessary and temporal application of violence as an element of revolutionary constituent power was far from realization because, in his first decrees, he attempted to vindicate the terror and violence within the legal body of the state. One of the most provocative hypotheses would be that Carl Schmitt, despite his negative attitude towards both liberalism and bolshevism could have been the perfect theoretical ally for Lenin. Lenin’s dream about the abolition of violence and the state has become fiction in itself. If there is certain parallelism or convergence between the messianic deactivation of the law and the revolutionary effacement of the old order, one has to ask the question “What kind of law can be installed and exercised in the post-revolutionary state?“ “What becomes the law after the revolutionary fulfilment and how is it possible to conceive the law without the state?“ In addition, in the second part of the article, I will argue that Lenin’s political strategy was a certain form of Foucault’s theory of the governmental paradigm of power and, in fact, this was the foundation of the Soviet biopolitical machine.</p> Lasha Matiashvili Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 97 117 Empowering Silence <p>This paper examines the problem of <em>the Other’s agency</em> as a space of tension and contention between, on the one hand, a dominant discourse that tends to subjugate the Other’s voice through either modulation or obliteration and, on the other, silence as a strategy of resistance to the hegemonic discourse of apartheid in J. M. Coetzee’s early novels. The authority’s stratagem of using violence, whether it be corporeal or discursive, to coerce its (ex)colonial subjects to speak, confess, and even consent to the authorized versions of truth is impugned by the Other’s provocative reticence to communicate with the Self. To achieve its autonomy in the face of such a totalizing authority, which relentlessly seeks to suppress any disrupt voice of alterity, the Other resorts to silence as an act of evasion and possibly liberation. The speechlessness of the Other in Coetzee’s early novels, then, is not presented as a mere act of relinquishment the agency; it is rather eloquently staged as an aporetic state of incommensurability that disarticulates colonial and imperialist modes of representation tending to normalize and assimilate the colonized within its cognitive framework.</p> Kamel Abdaoui Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 119 136 The Image of the New Man in Post-War Short Stories <p>Much has been said about men’s sense of disillusionment, decentralization and loss caused by the great wars of the twentieth century that brought them to question inherited notions of self-identity and masculinity. Interestingly, the found literature explored the Western man’s experience and overlooked other stories, such as that of the Arab man who was similarly tormented by the war. The paper in hand seeks to argue that both the Western man and the Arab one were in search of a new self-definition in the eve of the world wars as made clear when comparing two defining short stories “The Man Who Loved Islands” by D. H. Lawrence and “The White Rose” by Hanna Mina.</p> <p>Throughout this paper, I will examine the various ways via which these two war authors responded to the urgent need of asserting a new self-image and identity for post-war men. Following the findings of masculine studies that developed during the 1990s, it becomes clear that the New Man embraced a new masculine identity that reflected an awareness that a person was not born a man, but became one when abiding by the rules of patriarchy.</p> Cyrine Kortas Copyright (c) 2021 Brolly 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 3 3 137 154