International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences <p>Call for Papers -&nbsp;Vol. 8, No. 2 (August 2019)<br>Submission Deadline: May 31, 2019</p> en-US (Prof. Dr Mourad Ali Eissa Saad) (Technical Support) Tue, 02 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Cultural Ableism in Poland during the Iron Curtain Period <p>The following article is written from the perspective of disability studies (Głodkowska, Pągowska 2017) and concentrates on cultural ableism as a dominant pattern present in Poland during the Iron Curtain (1945-1989). The authors are of the opinion that the conditions of forced functioning of the Polish society behind the Iron Curtain generated current and long-term effects formulating cultural ableism patterns. It should be pointed out that Polish academics (especially special pedagogues) mention the existence of transformation phenomena after the hardships of the past system, or sometimes are silent about the ideologisation, censorship and indoctrination of Polish society for 44 years, with Soviet concepts relating to disability. It happens also that the scholars cut off more or less strongly from the idea that in fact Soviet defectological thought was present or developed in special education. On the other hand, among the various long-term effects of being dependent on Soviet ideology and political supremacy, related to the construction of learned helplessness in many aspects of attitudes towards disability. The authors believe also that for some reason even in current Poland, speaking and thinking about disability corresponds with the cultural ableism effects and supreme slogan of Soviet defectology to "fit a man into the system" (Kalinnikova and Trygged 2014). The article was divided into sections in which the authors analyse the defectological concept of disability, normalization of cultural ableism towards the disabled people in times of the Iron Curtain. Then, there is discussion the issues of learned helplessness and the analysis of this phenomenon within the system and legal acts, and in the context of the segregation in the education system. The article ends with conclusions and implications for reeducation of normalized cultural ableism patterns.</p> Beata Borowska-Beszta, Katarzyna Wasilewska-Ostrowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Reflection on Effective English Language Teaching and Learning Methodologies in Higher Education <p>The purpose of carrying this study is to examine the university teachers’ beliefs concerning effective English Language Teaching and Learning Methodologies in higher education, the potential sources of the university teachers’ beliefs concerning effective English Language Teaching and Learning Methodologies in higher education, as well as the main requirements for improving effective English Language Teaching and Learning Methodologies in higher education. Key participants in purposeful sampling consist of fifty (50) university teachers (4 assistant professors, 16 lecturers, and 30 language teachers) from the English Language Institute, University of Jeddah. All the participants had a teaching experience of 3-6 and above. An eight-question semi-structured interview and a seventeen, three-point opinion survey statement survey were administered to the participants. The findings of this study indicated that there are four identified themes, namely the university teachers own experience as language learners, Experience of what works best in their classes, Teaching methods, and Established practice. It was found that new methods of teaching English at the university level are crucial. Additionally, motivating students, trusting their abilities, and caring of them are required. Moreover, university teachers should take their professional development into consideration. This will be through conducting research in this field of specialty. Lastly, there should be a rapport between and among university teachers and their students.</p> Mai Lutfi Alnajami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Teachers’ Needs for Medical English in the Faculty of Medicine at Abdelhamid Ibn-Badis University <p>The urgent need for English instruction at the faculty of medicine, Mostaganem University, motivated us to investigate the teachers’ needs for medical English. In this prospect, an in-depth needs analysis was conducted to know the teachers’ of medicine needs for English in order to make an appropriate course design for them. Accordingly, a set of procedures were taken in which a questionnaire was elaborated to investigate the learners’ profiles, their target needs, and their learning styles. Furthermore, an interview with the responsible for medical English was held to determine the way the learning process should be conducted. Moreover, a placement test consolidated by a classroom observation was used to reveal the learners’ strengths and weaknesses regarding the language. The results of the needs analysis were exploited and interpreted to elaborate a suitable course design for the teachers of medicine at Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University to equip them with the linguistic tool to be able to use English as a medium in their researches and to attend international conferences. Finally, an official implementation of the suggested course design for medical professionals in the academic setting was proposed as a first attempt to introduce English to the faculty of medicine.</p> Fatima Zohra Adli, Hanane Sarnou, Leila Bekri Hamerlain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of a Brain-Based Learning Program on Working Memory and Academic Motivation among Tenth Grade Omanis Students <p>This study aims to investigate the effect of a brain-based learning program on working memory and academic motivation among tenth grade Omanis students. The sample was selected from students in the tenth grade in basic education in the Sultanate of Oman. The participants in this study were 75 preparatory school students. Experimental group (EG) consisted of 37 students while the control group (CG) consisted of 38 students. An experimental Pretest and Posttest Control-Group design was used in this study. The brain-based learning program was conducted to the whole class by their actual teacher during the actual lesson period for 8 weeks with 50 minute sessions conducted three times a week. The program was designed based on the three basic fundamentals of brain-based learning, namely ‘orchestrated immersion’, ‘relaxed alertness’, and ‘active processing’. The results of this study indicated great gains for students in the experimental group in both working memory and academic motivation. This study goes some way to understanding working memory and academic motivation in Omanis tenth grade primary students. The study shows that students in the experimental group, compared to those in the control group, develop robust working memory and academic motivation due to training in brain-based learning. The study shows that those young students have a great chance of developing their g memory and academic motivation.</p> Adel M. ElAdl, Mourad Ali Eissa Saad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Defining and Determining Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder): Insights from DSM-5 <p>Over the years, the terms used to identify intellectual disability, which was previously known as “mental retardation,” have changed. This has been due to the heavy stigma associated with bearing its label (Tassé &amp; Mehling, in press). This article examines defining and determining intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder). The focus is on the Diagnostic Criteria in DSM-5. Diagnostic features, associated features supporting the diagnosis, and prevalence are discussed.</p> Mourad Ali Eissa Saad, Adel M. ElAdl ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Burden of Chronic Conditions and Subjective Complaints as Factors Modifying the Way Polish Students Are Functioning at School <p>Introduction: Recurrent subjective complaints may be a result or a cause of worse functioning at school. Interrelations of this type are rarely analysed from the perspective of simultaneously occurring chronic conditions.<br>Method: 5225 students in three age groups (average age 13,59 ±1,66) from the 2017/2018 school year were qualified for the Polish HBSC sample (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children). The occurrence of chronic conditions (CC) and multiple recurrent symptoms (SCL) were analysed jointly. Following groups revealed: CC (-) &amp; SCL (-): 51.5%; CC (-) &amp; SCL (+): 33.5%; CC (+) &amp; SCL (-): 7.1%; CC (+) &amp; SCL (+): 7.9%. Eight aspects of functioning at school were analysed in three subject blocks: general adjustment, social support and bullying. Logistic regression adjusted by gender and grade was applied.<br>Results: The percentage of students qualified to the most positive group CC (-) &amp;SCL (-) is significantly higher among boys than girls and decreases significantly with age. Perception of the school environment becomes significantly worse in the group reporting multiple complaints, regardless of the occurrence of chronic conditions. In the group without complaints students with chronic conditions are significantly more likely to experience a higher level of school stress than their healthy peers (p=0.006) and have a slightly worse perception of teacher support (p=0.067). In the multivariate analysis, the greatest difference between the CC (-) &amp; SCL (-) and CC (+) &amp; SCL (+) group was determined for being a victim of bullying (OR=4.38) and school stress (OR=3.40). Suffering from a chronic condition clearly modifies the interrelation between perception of school and subjective complaints in the following areas: victimization, school stress and academic achievement.<br>Conclusion: Functioning at school depends on the health of the students and declines in line with increasing health problems, especially in the context of school stress and peer violence. The obtained results ought to be taken into account in the work with the entire class as well as individual work with a student suffering from a chronic disease.</p> Agnieszka Małkowska-Szkutnik, Joanna Mazur ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Multiple Intelligences Training Program on Improving Reading Comprehension Skills of Reading of the Disabled Primary Six Students <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of multiple intelligences training programs on reading comprehension skills of reading disabled primary six students. Pre- test / Post- test / follow –up –test were formed to collect data from the students. 60 students participated in the present study. Each student participant met the following established criteria to be included in the study: (a) a diagnosis of LD by teacher's referral. Neurological scanning results indicated that those individuals were neurologically deficient (b) an IQ score on the Mental Abilities Test (Mosa, 1989) between 90 and 118 (c) reading performance scores at least 2 years below grade level (d) absence of any other disabling condition. Results of this study indicate that Multiple Intelligence Theory based activities proved to be more helpful in the achievement and retention of reading comprehension skills. Discussion of results, suggestions for further study, and implications were included.</p> Adel El Saied El Banna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Study Habits and Test Anxiety among First-Year Preparatory School Students with Learning Disabilities <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of brain-based learning approach on study habits and test anxiety among first-year preparatory school students with learning disabilities. 60 students participated in the present study. Each student participant is of low achievement scores on one or more standardized tests or subtests within an academic domain (i.e., at least 1.5 standard deviations [SD] below the population mean for age. For collecting and analysing data, Study Habits Test, and Test Anxiety scale were employed. The program was designed based on the three basic fundamentals of brain-based learning, namely ‘orchestrated immersion’, ‘relaxed alertness’, and ‘active processing’. The brain-based learning program was conducted to the whole class by their actual teacher during the actual lesson period for 8 weeks with 45-minute sessions conducted three times a week. The results of this study showed that the brain-based learning approach was effective in improving study habits and relieving test anxiety of students in the experimental group, compared to the control group whose individuals did not receive such training. Results, recommendations and conclusion were included and discussed.</p> Esam Gomaa Ahmed Nassar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000