The Logical Relation of Consequence

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Basil Evangelidis


The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initially we investigate the question: How was the concept of logical consequence discovered by the medieval philosophers? Which ancient philosophical foundations were necessary for the discovery of the logical relation of consequence and which explicit medieval contributions, such as the notion of the formality (formal validity), led to its discovery. Secondly we discuss which developments of modern philosophy effected the turn from the medieval concept of logical consequence to its most recent conceptions, such as the semantic, syntactic, axiomatic and natural deductive approaches? Thirdly we examine which are the similarities and the differences between the logical concepts of consequence, inference, implication and entailment? Furthermore, we ask what kind of relation signifies the concept of the logical consequence? That is to say, which is the analytic definition of the consequence relation R between the premises p1, and the conclusion c of a formally valid argument? Finally, we focus on the respective answers given through the developments in proof theory by David Hilbert and Gerhard Gentzen.

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Evangelidis, B. (2020). The Logical Relation of Consequence. Humanities Bulletin, 3(2), 77–90. Retrieved from

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